If one eats vegetables during the meal does one need to say ha’adamah? Should one make a ha’adamah before the meal begins (less than c’zayit?)
What about shehakol? are all drinks covered by ‘hamotzi’? Is just water a problem? should one thus make a shhakol beofre the meal as well?
Also for someone davening nusach sefard in ashkenaz minyan should one say the longer tachanun in mincha or do what everyone else is doing?
For vegetables no ha’adamah is made during the meal. Vegetables are considered part of the meal, and do not obligated a beracha.
Drinks are generally covered as part of the meal. However, if one feels thirsty before the meal, it is preferable to make a shehakol, and drink a small amount–less than a revi’is–before the meal. The same applies for drinks that are not a conventional part of a regular meal.
For nusach sefard in an ashkenaz minyan, one should do what everyone is doing, though some permit saying the longer version. Please see http://www.dinonline.org/2011/05/11/tachanun-in-ashkenaz-minyan/.