If one lit ner chanukah on his kitchen table in his house, is he yotzi even if there is no danger (but that is the only place where he is able to light, or some other reason)?
After this became the custom, based on an enactment of Chazal, it is hard to say that somebody will not be yotzei with this lighting – and indeed, many (especially Hassidim) continue to light this way even today.
Please see sources.
The Gemara states that one may light indoors if it there is a danger in lighting outside. Accordingly, the Or Zaru’a 2:323 asks why nowadays, when such danger no longer exists, the practice is to light inside. The Shibolei HaLeket 185 answers that once there was a time when Jews had to light indoors, the minhag remained even if its original motivation dissipated.
Another approach in defense of the minhag is based on the opinion of the Ritva, who explains that if one can not light outside because of the winds, one should light inside.
The Rama 671:7 writes that the accepted minhag nowadays is to light indoors next to the doorway. The Mishna Brurah 671:38 (and Shaar HaTziyun 671:20) adds that if there’s a window to the public domain and there’s no issue of danger one should light by the window (unless it is above 20 amos from street level).
Several authorities note that danger of thieves is also considered a “danger” that permits lighting indoors (see Rabbenu Yerucham 9:1; Siddur Rav Amram Goan; Hilchos Kesuvos Min HaGeonim; Darchei Moshe 671:9; Bach 671, and some mention the fear of scoffers (see Shut Minchas Yitzchak 6:66).
According to a number of authorities, moreover, one fulfills the mitzvah lighting indoors even if there is no danger. However, most write that one should light today by the window or outdoors, to publicize the miracle and fulfill the mitzvah as its original enactment.