Rebbi started with 3 questions. The first question is, in last weeks Parshah, we read thatLot was captured, and Avraham Avinu had a war to rescue him. Isn’t it strange that in this weeks Parshah, when Sarah is taken captive, why doesn’t Avraham Avinu take the same army to do battle, to save Sarah from Avimelech?
The second question is, the Posuk says, in 18:10, “שׁוֹב אָשׁוּב אֵלֶיךָ כָּעֵת חַיָּה.” Avraham was told that a year later he would have a son. Toisafois in Maseches Rosh Hashanah, in the sugya of Uv’Tishrei Nivreh Haoilam, brings a Medrash from this Posuk, שׁוֹב אָשׁוּב אֵלֶיךָ כָּעֵת חַיָּה, that the Malochim drew a line on the wall. Where the shadow of the sun was today, the next time the shadow hits there again, which will be exactly a year later, you will have a son. The problem with this is, the sun goes according to the Solar year, which is 365 days. However, Rashi says this was Pesach and Yitzchok was born on Pesach as well. So it doesn’t seem to Shtim, as we know the Solar year and Lunar year do not coincide?
The third question is, in 22:17, יז כִּי-בָרֵךְ אֲבָרֶכְךָ, וְהַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה אֶת-זַרְעֲךָ כְּכוֹכְבֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם, וְכַחוֹל, אֲשֶׁר עַל-שְׂפַת הַיָּם; וְיִרַשׁ זַרְעֲךָ, אֵת שַׁעַר אֹיְבָיו, Hashem gives a big B’rachah to Avraham Avinu for passing the Akeidas Yitzchok Nisayon.
The problem is, this B’rachah was already promised to Avraham Avinu at the beginning of Parshas Lech Lecha in 12:1-3, (א וַיֹּאמֶר יְרוָר אֶל-אַבְרָם, לֶךְ-לְךָ מֵאַרְצְךָ וּמִמּוֹלַדְתְּךָ וּמִבֵּית אָבִיךָ, אֶל-הָאָרֶץ, אֲשֶׁר אַרְאֶךָּ ב וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ, לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל, וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ, וַאֲגַדְּלָה שְׁמֶךָ; וֶהְיֵה, בְּרָכָה ג וַאֲבָרְכָה, מְבָרְכֶיךָ, וּמְקַלֶּלְךָ, אָאֹר; וְנִבְרְכוּ בְךָ, כֹּל מִשְׁפְּחֹת הָאֲדָמָה) for leaving his father’s house?
At the end of Parshas Lech Lecha, by the Bris Bein Habisorim, in 17:6-8, ו וְהִפְרֵתִי אֹתְךָ בִּמְאֹד מְאֹד, וּנְתַתִּיךָ לְגוֹיִם; וּמְלָכִים, מִמְּךָ יֵצֵאוּ ז וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת-בְּרִיתִי בֵּינִי וּבֵינֶךָ, וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ לְדֹרֹתָם–לִבְרִית עוֹלָם: לִהְיוֹת לְךָ לֵאלֹקִים, וּלְזַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ ח וְנָתַתִּי לְךָ וּלְזַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ אֵת אֶרֶץ מְגֻרֶיךָ, אֵת כָּל-אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן, לַאֲחֻזַּת, עוֹלָם; וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם, לֵאלֹקִים, there is virtually, the same B’rachah? What was added at the Akeidah that had not already been mentioned the previous 2 B’rachois?
The Ramban mentions that Avraham was promised Sheloi Yigroim Hacheit. However, the Ramban mentions that at the Bris Bein Habisorim as well, so it only answers up for one of the extra times there is the same B’rochah.
22:1 The Chasam Soifer in Toiras Moishe, on וְהָאֱלֹקִים, נִסָּה אֶת-אַבְרָהָם, addresses why Akeidas Yitzchok is a Nisayoin for Avraham, more so than a Nisayoin for Yitzchok Avinu? L’choirah, it was a Nisayoin for both of them?
The Pashuta Teretz would be that it is easier for someone to give his own life than his child’s life. The Chasam Soifer is still bothered why the Posuk only mentions that it is a Nisayoin only for Avraham. The Chasam Soifer answers, when Hashem gives someone a Nisayoin, part of the Nisayoin is a Hester Panim of Hakadoish Baruch Hu. Sometimes when we are in middle of a Nisayoin, it is hard for us to understand what Hashem wants from us. When the Posuk says וְהָאֱלֹקִים, נִסָּה אֶת-אַבְרָהָם it was a time that Avraham was Richuk from Hashem. It was difficult for Avraham.
The Chasam Soifer says this is P’shat in Maseches Sukkah 52b (third line from the top), “שנאמר (תהילים לז) צופה רשע לצדיק ומבקש להמיתו”and “ולא ירשיענו בהשפטו שנאמ’ (תהילים לז) ד’ לא יעזבנו בידו.” The Gemarah darshuns, “ואלמלא הקב”ה שעוזר לו אינו יכול לו.” Which means when a person has a Nisayoin, he has to be Margish Hakadosh Baruch Hu, because if you are not Margish Hakodosh Baruch Hu, it is hard to get through a Nisayoin.
The Chasam Soifer says, that is P’shat in our Posuk, וְהָאֱלֹקִים, נִסָּה אֶת-אַבְרָהָם. Avaraham had the Nisayoin, Yitzchok didn’t have this Nisayoin. When Yitzchok understood that he was the Korban, it wasn’t so hard for him. He felt that if the Boirei Oilam wanted this from him, he would do it. However, the Posuk saying וְהָאֱלֹקִים, נִסָּה אֶת-אַבְרָהָם is Dafka telling you this idea, that for Avraham Avinu it was a Nisayoin.
One of the Chasiddishe Seforim Taitshes along these lines, the Posuk in 22:4, “וַיַּרְא אֶת-הַמָּקוֹם–מֵרָחֹק.” That Avraham Avinu saw Hamokoim (Hashem) as if he were distant. Our Avoidah when we have a Nisayoin, is to not view Hashem Mairachoik, it should be Maikaroiv, with closeness. As soon as the Nisayoin was over, the Malach calls to Avraham, as it says in 22:11, “יא וַיִּקְרָא אֵלָיו מַלְאַךְ יֶרוֶָר, מִן-הַשָּׁמַיִם, וַיֹּאמֶר, אַבְרָהָם אַבְרָהָם; וַיֹּאמֶר, הִנֵּנִי”. Rashi says (אברהם אברהם: לשון חבה הוא שכופל את שמו) it is a Lashoin Shel Chibah. However, in 22:1 at the Beginning of the Parshah Akeidah, it only says Avraham once (וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו, אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּנִי)?
The Lashon Chibah is when there is a Hiskarvus to Hakadosh Boruch Hu, so after the Nisayoin it was Avraham, Avraham. At the beginning of the Nisayoin it was B’davkah Avraham once. In יְשַׁעְיָהוּ 51:2 says, “הַבִּיטוּ אֶל-אַבְרָהָם אֲבִיכֶם, וְאֶל-שָׂרָה תְּחוֹלֶלְכֶם: כִּי-אֶחָד קְרָאתִיו, וַאֲבָרְכֵהוּ וְאַרְבֵּהוּ”. That Klal Yisrael should look at the example of Avraham and Sarah, כִּי-אֶחָד קְרָאתִיו. The Drush of that is, Hashem called Avraham once when he went through this Nisayoin. Then Hashem was Marbeh him and he was Zoiche to all the B’rachois because he was able to be Oimed in the difficult Nisayoin of Akeidas Yitzchak. The lesson to be learned is, every Nisayoin that comes up in life, the difficulty of the Nisayoin is equal to the distance that a person feels from the Boirei Oilam. The Avoidah is to feel a Hiskarvus which is always difficult.
This sits well with a Sfas Emes on the Parshah. The Sfas Emes says on 22:2 where it says, “קַח-נָא,” which is a Lashoin Bakasha. Usually, a Tzivui is not a Lashon Bakasha. Hashem is saying, really I had promised you as it says in 21:12 כִּי בְיִצְחָק, יִקָּרֵא לְךָ זָרַע, however, be Moichel me and please do me this favor. Avraham was Moichel what Hashem had promised him, and he took Yitzchok to the Akeidah even though it wasn’t a commandment.
Loit this Hesber an earlier question is answered. The question that was posed earlier was what did the B’rachah to Avraham after the Akeidah add to the 2 previous times Avraham received this B’rachah? According to this Sfas Emes it is Geshmak, as the previous Havtachois of Hashem, Avraham Avinu was already Moichel. So now he needed the B’racha again.
There is another Kasha on the Parsha, which the Sfas Emes deals with. Rashi brings a Gemarah in Maseches Rosh Hashanah 16b (eight lines from the top). It says,שנאמר (בראשית כא) כי שמע אלקים אל קול הנער באשר הוא שם. That a person is not judged except for the way his Maasim are at that moment.
The Marshah askes a Kasha, by a Ben Soirer Umoirer, we are Nidoin Al Sheim Soifoi, we would rather he dies before he does anything really bad. Isn’t that a Stirah to this concept of Ba’asher Hu Sham? The Marshah’s answers which is not even satisfying is, Yishmael’s problems where that his children did evil things, so he wasn’t judged on his children’s misdeeds. Mashe’ainkain, the Ben Soirer Umoirer, is being judged on his own future Maasim. It is a Peleh, because the Gemarah itself says, אין דנין את האדם אלא לפי מעשיו של אותה שעה. It doesn’t mention anything about children’s Maasim?
The Sfas Emes has a Hesber, which Shtims with a Mizrachi’s Teretz. By Ben Soirer Umoirer, what he did already, it is not P’shat that it is a Siman on the future that he will do something so wrong that he will deserve the death penalty. The P’shat is, that those later Maasim that we anticipate of the Ben Soirer Umoirer are part of the Maasim he is doing now. Like an addict becomes an addict. The Aveirah is that he caused himself to get addicted. So the same thing here, the Ben Soirer Umoirer, addicts himself to a certain lifestyle, so his Aveirah happened already, so that is why a Ben Soirer is not really called Al Sheim Soifoi.