- Can a bracha rishona be made while having in mind to exclude some of the things that it would potentially cover, i.e. some foods of the same bracha?
- Can an after achrona be made to cover some items and not others? For example, if one remembered a brachah had not been recited in the middle of eating a different food from that same brachah category.
- Also, if one ate candy and while having coffee but plans to continue sipping coffee for which no after brachah we’ll be recited.
- Regarding making a bracha and having in mind to include only part of the things this bracha can include is the topic of much controversy. Some Achronim say that it may be done, others say that it is causing a bracha l’vatala and is prohibited, even if done in order to say meah brachos. Therefore in general it should not be done. The poskim do conclude that it is permitted in certain instances, such as when the bracha on the excluded item is questionable and excluding it, will solve the issue. (See sources for examples).
- Regarding excluding part of what one ate from a bracha achrona, is even more problematic, as there are opinions that it automatically includes everything that was eaten. (See sources). Now addressing your specific question, I don’t really understand your case, because a person has to say a bracha achrona on everything he ate, even if he didn’t say a bracha rishona on it, or part of it. So I don’t understand why he would want to make the bracha achrona on only one type of food?
- Regarding the tea, in the case you are giving, although there might be a technical reason to want to have only the candy in mind, however why would he want to do something like this? Being that it is questionable if one makes a bracha achrona on hot tea, by waiting to make the bracha achrona after finishing it, he is gaining, that now his bracha will include the tea. Therefore by making the bracha achrona now he is causing himself a halachic issue? Therefore in the case that you are giving, he should not make the bracha now, but he should wait until he finishes the tea.
- This is a famous machlokes the Pri Chadash Y:D 19-8, who says that one may exclude something from his bracha, on the other hand the Tevuas Shor ibid 17 forbids it because it will cause a bracha l’vatala. See aruch Hasulchan O:CH 206-12, Sdei Chemed Brachos 1 -4. The poskim say that that if there is a halachic benefit to exclude a certain item, i.e. if it is questionable if certain item needs a bracha, then one may have in mind not to include that item in his bracha. For example, when making a bracha on tzitzis and he will exclude the bracha from applying to when he will put his tzitzis on a second time during the day. (see S:A O:CH 8-14, Sharei teshuva ibid 15, Biur Halacha bid D:H Vyesh Omriim) Or having in mind when making the bracha on the teffilin shel yad not to include the shel rosh in the bracha, (O:CH 25-5, Biur Halacha D:H V’tov in the name of R’ Akiva Eiger). Or when smelling something, and having in mind that it should only include what he is smelling now, (because he doesn’t know if this bracha would include the next time he smells this item.) .
Additional sources- MG:A 639 regarding making a bracha on the succah only until a certain time, Also see Eretz Tzvi 1-100. Maharsham 1-169, Pri Migadim M:Z 52-1, Shevet Halevi 7-22, Minchas Shlomo 1-18(9), Bracha Khilchoso 1-12, Sharei Habracha 10-13 ftnt. 34.
- The two brachos are not dependent on each other.
- See Har Tzvi 96, that the Pri Megadim (Intro. to Hilchos Brachos 10, and M:Z 211- 5 that when a person make a brach achrona it automatically include all that he ate, also see Shvus Yitzchok 8 pg. 278, Shevet Hakehosi 3-79, for other opinions. Note, there is a technical gain if he already said the bracha achrona and excluded the tea, that now he doesn’t have to make a new bracha when he continues drinking. However, as stated he shouldn’t make the bracha achrona now, but he should wait until he is finished drinking his tea. Heard from R’ Stitzberg, author of Sharei Habracha.