In today’s generation there a difference between partial and full teshuva?
Is there a concept nowadays of feeling “bad enough?”
If I try to improve but I don’t feel especially regretful or embarrassed is that only partial teshuva? Such as if I turn a light on or move something muktzah on Shabbos either by accident or sadly sometimes on purpose?
In our generation, like in all generations, there are many different levels of teshuva, and according to the level of teshuva, the persons sin is cleaned. Like washing clothing, if the person stops the machine after only half the cycle, it will affect how clean the clothes come out, so too with teshuva, if we only do partial teshuva we will only come out partially cleaned.
I am not familiar with this concept of feeling bad enough.
The first stage of teshva is to feel remorse and regret for what was done. If the person has not yet reached that stage, or if the person has done the sin numerous times, and now doing the sin doesn’t bother them, then the first they have to do is to remove themselves from transgressing the sin, then they can work on feeling remorse over doing the sin .
Rabeinu Yona Sharei teshuva 1-11