- How much of the hair is required to be covered to fulfill “Dat Moshe”?
Is it only partial so that the hair in the back can remain entirely exposed and still fulfill Dat Moshe ? What are the precise measures? How much of the hair is required to be covered to fulfill “Dat Yehudit”? How much hair, and where, can hair be exposed and still fulfill Dat Yehudit?
- Is one required to cover up in front of family members? If so, what type of covering is sufficient?
- The difference between Daas Moshe and Daas Yehudis is that Daas Moshe is referring to the things that halachically are considered ervah, that she must cover, such as her hair when she walks outside in the street. (See Kesubos 72a, Rambam Hilchos Ishus 24-11,12) On the other hand Daas Yehudis are the things that the minhag was to do extra, more than the strict halacha. For example, the minhag that woman covered their hair with an extra cover would be Daas Yehudis. Since it is the minhag of Bnos Yisroel Haksheros” it is Daas Yehudis, and only d’rabonon in nature, but nevertheless it is required. (For the reason why many women only cover their hair with a tichel, snood, and don’t add a second cover see Levusha Shel Torah chap. 31). Therefore it is Daas Moshe that all of the woman’s hair be covered, and if she walks out when only half of her hair is covered it is Daas Moshe and not merely Daas Yehudis.Regarding how much of her hair has to be covered, most poskim hold that all of her hair must be covered. (Even regarding the opinion of R’ Moshe Zt”l it was not that she may l’chatchila walk out that way in the street, rather if b’dieved she did, do we say that she was over, but definitely not to say that it is permitted. This is the opinion of R’ Pam, R’ Sheinberg zt”l, and YBCHL”CH R’ Dovid Feinstein, R’ M. Solomon, and R’ N. Kareitz Shlita, Horav Shlita. See Livusha Shel Torah chap. 24-19, and Modesty pages 236- 238.Hair that grows out of her temples, sideburns, and on her neck are permitted, and do not have to be covered, however if it is the minhag of the place to cover them then they have to be covered.
- A woman should have her hair covered even in front of family members. It is known that the zohar spoke strongly against a woman uncovering her hair even in her home. Although it is not halachically required, having her hair covered even at home helps for her children’s yiras shomayim and for the blessing of her husband. In addition, there are opinions (although the minority) that it is halachically required. Aside from this if her hair is uncovered at home, her husband and child may not say any brachos when they can see her uncovered hair. This is something very hard to be careful about, because inevitably they will forget etc. In addition she might mistakenly answer the door with her hair uncovered, which understandably is not allowed.
Therefore essentially all of her hair should be covered even in front of family members, but if she doesn’t want to do what is really correct, then uncovering part or all of her hair would be the same thing.
- Covering all of her hair, see Eishel Avraham Butchatch 75:2, Tzemach Tzedek 139, Mishnah Berurah 75:10, Dovev Mesharim 1:124, Mahratz Chias 53, Teshuros Shai 1:51:1:page 12, Chasam Sofer O:C 36, Darchei Teshuva Y.D. 198:91, Divrei Yisroel 1:33, Minchas Yitzchok 1:7, Maharsham 4:138, Yabea Omer E.H. 4:3:3, Chekel Yitzchok 81, Lehoros Nosson 5:pages 166-190 in great depth, Teshuvos V’hanhugos 1:62, 2, 692 (quoting the Chazzon Ish), Chut Shuni Shabbos 3:page 272, Minhag Yisroel Torah (Nesuin) pages 52-53. Ketzos Ha’shulchan 1:page 90, Shevet Ha’Levi 5:195:1.) Hair of the temples sideburns- See Modesty pg. 230, Levusha Shel Torah 28-8.
- M:B 75-14, in the name of the Zohar, Teshuvs Vhanhagos 2-269 in the name of the Chasam Sofer, O:CH 75-2, M:B ibid 10.