Can one put a soda in the freezer on Shabbos so this soda gets chilled and then take the soda out before anything freezes?
It is permitted to put soda in the freezer to cool it for drinking on Shabbos.
Sources: The question of placing liquid in the freezer for the purpose of creating ice has been disputed by modern-day authorities. Although Dovev Mesharim (55) prohibits the practice, the majority of poskim, including Tzitz Eliezer, (vol 6, no. 34:2), Chelkas Yaakov (2:98), Ohel Moshe (2:101), Rabbi Ovadyah Yosef (Kol Sinai 5725, p. 336), and Be’er Moshe (2:25) (Shemiras Shabbos permits it only in cases of great need). Therefore, even for those who are stringent with respect to actually freezing the liquid, it would certainly be permitted to place liquid in the freezer with the intention of taking it out before it freezes.