Is it OK to say the blessing for rain even though it is summer? We are in the worst drought ever. If we are out of Eretz Yisrael are we allowed to pray for rain in the summer?
The prayer for rain in the Amidah prayer (in the Shema Koleinu blessing) was enacted for the winter months alone, meaning for the rainy season, and it is not said outside the rainy season. Therefore, depending on where you are, the prayer is said in the rainy season, but not otherwise.
It seems that the halachos of the prayer for rain correspond to the halachos of the fasts that are enacted for rainfall. See Aruch Hashulchan 117:9. It is possible to distinguish between the two, but the custom is clearly to recite the prayer only in the rainy season.