Rav Elchonon in the Koivetz Ma’amarim has a beautiful piece with far reaching implications. By Makas B’choirois in 12:27, the Pasuk says, (אֲשֶׁר פָּסַח עַל-בָּתֵּי בְנֵי-יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּמִצְרַיִם, בְּנָגְפּוֹ אֶת-מִצְרַיִם, וְאֶת-בָּתֵּינוּ הִצִּיל). That Hashem passed over the Bnei Yisrael’s houses when he killed the Mitzriyim. Rashi explains that Hashem did this himself without a shaliach, and the reason given is since if Hashem would give over this power to a Malach, the Malach would not differentiate between a Tzaddik and a Rasha.
This concept is extremely difficult, as we know the Malach Hamaves doesn’t kill without being given a specific name and address? In addition, making such a fuss over the fact that Hashem skipped over the houses of the Bnei Yisrael seems ridiculous, as every time people have to be killed other people are not killed. What is so special of jumping over a home? In addition, all the Makkos affected the Mitzrim and didn’t affect the Yidden, so why was this so special?
Rav Elchonon writes an important Yesoid, in which he brings down a Ran and a Rashba. Hakadoish Baruch Hu judges the world on 2 levels, a Din Haklali and Din Haprati. The Din on the Tzibbur which is judged separately than the individual is the Din Haklali, while in contrast, the Din on the individual is the Din Haprati. He writes a Klal that the Din of the Klal overrides the Din Haprati to the extent that there might be a contradiction between the two.
The Mishnah on Daf 16 of Maseches Rosh Hashonah says (בארבעה פרקים העולם נידון בפסח על התבואה בעצרת על פירות האילן בר”ה כל באי עולם עוברין לפניו כבני מרון שנאמר (תהילים לג) היוצר יחד לבם המבין אל כל מעשיהם ובחג נידונין על המים) that a person is judged on Rosh Hashonah and the Chasimah is on Yom Kippur. The Mishnah also says that on Sukkos a person is judged for rain, on Pesach for wheat, and Shavuous for fruit. The Ran asks, if on Rosh Hashonah we were already judged Mi Yai’oni Umi yai’osher, then how are we being judged again at other times during the year for rain, wheat, and fruit?
The Ran answers that on Rosh Hashonah, individuals are judged, however, on the Shalosh R’golim, the Tzibbur is judged on Mamonus (money matters). At the end of it all, the Din on the Tzibur overrides the Din on the Yachid. This says Rav Elchonon is what is meant by since Hashem gave Rishus to the Malach, the Malach doesn’t differentiate between the Tzadik and Rasha. If the Din on the Tzibbur of Mitzrayim is that all B’choirim must be killed, then since the Din on the Klali overrides the Din on the Prati, so normally Klal Yisrael would have been included in that Din. Hashem created Klal Yisrael as a new nation on Pesach night by separating us from the Mitzriyim by skipping over our houses. That is why we are making such a big fuss about it. Klal Yisrael was removed from the Din Haprati of Mitzrayim. The blood on the doorpost was like a flag for the new nation.
There is a T’shuva of the Rashba regarding Meshaneh Makoim Meshaneh Mazel. If a person is not having good Mazel, if it is because of the Din Haklali, then if he moves, it will help him. Of course, if it comes because of the Din Haprati, then it won’t help him.
In 12:29, the Pasuk says, (וַיְהִי בַּחֲצִי הַלַּיְלָה). In the song (וַיְהִי בַּחֲצִי הַלַּיְלָה) that is sung on the Seder night, one of the stanzas refers to when Achashveiroish couldn’t sleep, and he called for the Sefer Hazichroinois to be brought before him. So there we also say that the incident occurred on the midnight of the 15th of Nisan. The problem with this is that the Megillah says B’feirush that the G’zar Din against Klal Yisrael was the 13th day of Nisan. Even if that same day Mordechai was there Bil’vush Sak and everything else occurs on that same day, Esther still asks for fasting of 3 days and nights and after that she said she would go into the Melech. So this would be either Tes Zayin or Yud Zayin of Nisan. Now we know the day after Achashveiroish couldn’t sleep, Mordechai was taken on the horse and Haman came home so late that he had to rush to Esther’s party, this would be now the day of Tes Vav Nisan, Pesach itself, according to the song Vayehi Bachatzi Halayloh. This wouldn’t allow for 3 days and nights of fasting before Esther went into the Melech? It is possible that the 3 days started on Yud Gimmel which would make it Tes Vav.
We find the Mitzvah of Tefillin in this Parsha. In 13:16, the Pasuk says, (יָדְכָה) with a (כָה), instead of with an (ךָ) (Ende Chaf). The Gemara in Maseches Menachois actually teaches two D’rashois that we wear Tefillin on the left arm. One D’rasha is Yodchoh = Yad Kaiha (the weaker arm). The second D’rasha is Uk’shartem / Uch’saftem, that the same hand that a person uses to write, he should do the Keshirah (wrapping) of the Tefillin. A lefty has both these D’rashois inverted. There is a major difference between the two D’rashois. There are many people who write with one hand and have strength in the other hand. Skill and strength come from different parts of the brain, so this makes sense. These people fall in the crack of these two D’rashois. If you go with the D’rasha of Yad Kaiha, we go according to strength. If you go according to the D’rasha of Uk’shartem / Uch’saftem, then it depends on the hand with which you use to write. It is a Machloikes Tanoiyim in the Gemara which D’rasha is the Ikur.
The Rama and Gra argue on the Halacha L’maiseh. Rav Pam used to Pasken that since this is a Machloikes Hashakul, you go with the Kabalah which is that everyone should put Tefillin on the left arm. This is why in Chasiddishe towns, if there is a child who looks like he will be a lefty, they tie his left hand, to force him to become a righty. Someone who is an adult should be Machmir, he should wear the Tefillin on his left arm, and before taking them off for the day, he should slide them from his left arm to his right arm, if it is the same pair of Tefillin, be careful that the Yud is towards the body. You wear it just for a moment to be Yoitzeh all the Shittos.
There is another Z’hirus in Tefillin that Rebbi mentioned. Really a person should wear Tefillin for 4 K’daishim and 3 K’dushois. The 3 K’dushois are 1) Kodoish in Birchas K’riyas Shema, 2) Kedusha by Chazoras Hashatz, and 3) Kodoish by Uva L’tziyoin. A person who comes late to Davening and misses either the Kadish before Hoidu if he daven Nusach Sefard or the Kadish before Mizmor shiur and Baruch Sheomar if he davens Nusach Ashkenaz, should really not take off his Tefillin before hearing 4 K’daishim. It is not a chiyuv, however, it is the Middah Hanichoina (the correct way to behave for someone who wears Tefillin). In addition, there is a Chiyuv to answer 90 Amens every day. If you want to get this, it is ideal to come for B’rachois by Shacharis, and that will have the added benefit that you will be coming on time to Davening.