וּבַיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, מִקְרָא-קֹדֶשׁ, וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי, מִקְרָא-קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם
12:16 וּבַיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, מִקְרָא-קֹדֶשׁ, וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי, מִקְרָא-קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם: כָּל-מְלָאכָה, לֹא-יֵעָשֶׂה בָהֶם–אַךְ אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל לְכָל-נֶפֶשׁ, הוּא לְבַדּוֹ יֵעָשֶׂה לָכֶם Rebbi started the Shiur with a Dvar Halacha. We know that when Klal Yisrael left Mitzrayim they took everything with them, including everything they owned and everything they borrowed. In addition, they also had Ugois Matzos with them. The problem is that Klal Yisrael had already been commanded to keep the first day of Pesach, Koidesh. At this point Klal Yisrael had not yet received the Torah, however, they were given some Mitzvois including Tefillin and Pidyoin Haben. In addition, they also received the Mitzvah of Chag Hapesach which included eating Matzah for seven days and that the first and seven days is Koidesh in that no Melacha could be done. The only Melacha that was permitted was for Oichel Nefesh. So I can understand why they carried out with them from Mitzrayim the Matzos as that was for Oichel Nefesh, however, what was the Heter for them to take everything else that they took with them which included the wealth of Mitzrayim and their personal belongings?
The Chasam Soifer says that is why the Posuk says that they carried the Matzos in their hands whereas everything else was on the Behaimos. The reason is they only carried in their hands what was for Oichel Nefesh while everything else had to be carried by the Behaimos. This really wasn’t enough because there is an Issur D’oiraissa of Mechamer which applies to a Behaimah doing a Melacha for you. The Chasam Soifer brings a Gemara in Maseches Shabbos 153b (24 lines from the top) where it discusses if a person who is stuck on Friday late afternoon with a Hefsed Meruba, should have the animal carry and when it stops you lift the package off the animal and when it starts walking again you put the package back onto the animal. So in this way there is never an Akira or a Hanacha. אמר מר אין עמו נכרי מניחו על החמור והלא מחמר ורחמנא אמר (שמות כ) לא תעשה כל מלאכה א”ר אדא בר אהבה מניחו עליה כשהיא מהלכת והא אי אפשר דלא קיימא להשתין מים ולהטיל גללים ואיכא עקירה והנחה כשהיא מהלכת מניחו עליה כשהיא עומדת נוטלו הימנה The Chasam Soifer suggests that this is what Klal Yisrael did when they left Mitzrayim, by taking everything off and putting everything back on the animals. It seems a bit humorous that each person with 90 Chamoirim full of stuff would be picking up and putting down the packages as they went and stopped. The Kasha still remains what was the Heter?
A Teretz was offered. The Biur Halacha brings that Melacha is permitted for Tzorchei Mitzvah as we know you can carry a Lulav on Sukkos. Even though there is a Din of Lachem V’loi L’gavoi’a, however, a Mitzvois Hayoim you can carry for. Mimeila, it is very good, because the Ribboinoi Shel Oilam was Mechayeiv them to take out the wealth of Mitzrayim. Whatever they took out was the Dvar Mitzvah of the day. So there was a Heter for carrying.
This is good for the first day that it was Koidesh. What about the seventh day that was also Koidesh, they should have also not been permitted to carry? You can’t say that they parked and sat still, because we have a Kabbala that Kriyas Yam Suf was on the seventh day. So they obviously traveled?
When the Yidden walked through the Yam Suf there was water on either side of them so that there were walls of water on the side of them. You are permitted to carry if there are walls surrounding you. However, if there are walls only on 2 sides you are not permitted to carry? The Gemara in Maseches Arachin 15a says that Klal Yisrael crossed the Yam Suf in a U shape crossing. They went into the Yam Suf and came out on the same southern bank as where they started however; it was at a different point as is shown in the diagram in the Artscroll Gemara 15a4. The question that remains is, why didn’t Klal Yisrael go directly across the Yam Suf? Had they gone directly across there would be the Issur of carrying. To go in a U shaped area where the water was in effect a wall on either side of them, the northern, eastern, and western side of them which in turn makes it permitted to carry M’doiraissa. This is why they came out the same side that they went in, in order that there were 3 walls surrounding them.
וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֹתוֹ בְּחִפָּזוֹן
12:11 וְכָכָה, תֹּאכְלוּ אֹתוֹ–מָתְנֵיכֶם חֲגֻרִים, נַעֲלֵיכֶם בְּרַגְלֵיכֶם וּמַקֶּלְכֶם בְּיֶדְכֶם; וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֹתוֹ בְּחִפָּזוֹן We memorialize the fact that the Yidden were rushing, by baking the Matzos in a rush. We are always told that rushing is not a good thing and here we are told to remember the rushing. What exactly is the wonderful thing about rushing?
The Arizal is known to have said, when Klal Yisrael left Mitzrayim, they couldn’t wait because if they had waited another moment, they would have fallen into the 50th Shar of Tumah from which they wouldn’t have been able to get out from. Why did the Ribboinoi Shel Oilam wait until the very last minute to take them out? Why didn’t he take them out a day early and then he wouldn’t have had to rush?
Another question, let us say that the Geula would have happened a minute later, would the Yidden have fallen to the 50th Shar? What was going on in Mitzrayim during this night of Makkas Bechoirois, was there a Yeitzer Hora for Avoida Zorah? How can we say that if they would have stayed for an extra moment in Mitzrayim that they would have fallen into the 50th Shar Hatumah?
Rav Hutner in Pachad Yitzchak Maimar 1 Ois 1 on Pesach explains that there are 2 types of rushing and these 2 types of rushing are very central to all of our lives. There is one type of rushing that the time puts a pressure on you. For example a time deadline, like leaving late on a Friday afternoon. The second type of rushing is for something that is very important that you want to do like for example making sure everything is in its correct place if a dignitary would be visiting us.
Klal Yisrael when leaving Mitzrayim were not pressured by the clock. We are talking about Klal Yisrael after 10 Makkos and serving as slaves for 210 years now being told that they could leave. If their leaving would not be important to them as to be L’mayla Min Hazman, in order to make them rush, then they would have fallen into the 50th Shar Hatumah. How can you be in the 49th Shar Hatumah and be presented with an opportunity to get out and not grab it B’chipazoin? If they wouldn’t have shown that enthusiasm then they would have fallen into the 50th Shar Hatumah. So this B’chipazoin we are obligated to remember. This is why we have the rule Mitzvah She’boi B’yadcha Al Tach’mi’tzena. The Mitzvois must be important to us.
It is an excellent idea, not only to Teitch up all these questions but more importantly for a person to analyze his whole life and to see where he is going, where he is rushing and where he is heading.
קַדֶּשׁ-לִי כָל-בְּכוֹר פֶּטֶר כָּל-רֶחֶם
13:1 – 13:15 ב קַדֶּשׁ-לִי כָל-בְּכוֹר פֶּטֶר כָּל-רֶחֶם, בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל–בָּאָדָם, וּבַבְּהֵמָה: לִי, הוּא טו וַיְהִי, כִּי-הִקְשָׁה פַרְעֹה לְשַׁלְּחֵנוּ, וַיַּהֲרֹג יְkוָk כָּל-בְּכוֹר בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם, מִבְּכֹר אָדָם וְעַד-בְּכוֹר בְּהֵמָה; עַל-כֵּן אֲנִי זֹבֵחַ לַיkוָk, כָּל-פֶּטֶר רֶחֶם הַזְּכָרִים, וְכָל-בְּכוֹר בָּנַי, אֶפְדֶּה Everyone knows that a child must be 30 days old in order to have a Pidyon Haben. What many people are unaware of is that there is a Machloikes Magen Avraham and Shach how to Teitch 30th day for Pidyon Haben. The Magen Avraham holds that it has to be the 31st calendar day. The Shach holds it has nothing to do with the calendar. You need 29 days, 12 hours, and 44 minutes, which is a Lunar month. Once that passes you do the Pidyon Haben. Sometimes this falls out on the 30th day and sometimes on the 31st day. L’halacha, we perform a Pidyon Haben only after both have passed which is why we never do a Pidyon Haben on the night of the 31st day, because it will not always be after 29 days, 12 hours and 44 minutes after birth. It is always done on the 31st day. For example, if a baby is born on a Monday the Pidyon Haben is on a Wednesday.
The Posuk says that the reason for Pidyon Haben is because in Mitzrayim the Bechor of people and animals were killed therefore there is a Mitzvah of Pidyon Haben. Pidyon Haben has to be a Bechor to the mother, however, in Mitzrayim even a Bechor to a father and a Bechor to a mother died. This is a Gemara in Maseches Bava Metzia 61b (19 lines from the top) that Hakadoish Baruch Hu discerned in Mitzrayim who was a Bechor and who was not. אמר הקב”ה אני הוא שהבחנתי במצרים בין טפה של בכור לטפה שאינה של בכור
So how can it be that the Mitzva of Pidyon Haben is K’neged Makkas Bechoirois if Pidyon Haben and Makkas Bechoirois didn’t go with the same rules? There was no Teretz given for this Kasha.