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believing in more than one ruler


In Hil. Teshuvah 3:7 of the Mishneh Torah (in his listing of heretics – minim), the Rambam makes the following statement:

והאומר שיש שם מנהיג אבל הן שנים או יותר

“The one who says there is indeed a [God] directing [the universe], but that there are two or more.”

What is the basis of this ruling?

And where is it stated in earlier sources (pre-Rishonim) that only God has control over everything?


Please see sources below.


See Devorim 4:35 &39

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