I’m stuck on Gemoro Pesachim 94.
See what the Ramchal has to say about it:
רמח”ל ספר אדיר במרום
אך האמת הוא אעפ״י שהגלגלים והכוכבים הם דברים גשמיים, הנה בתוכם מתלבשין פנימיות מהשרשים…. וכל הדברים שתמצא שאומרים רדל בענין השמש ושאר הכוכבים, שאינן עומדים לפי הנראה לעינינו, מדבר הכל בזה הפנימיות שלהם…. והחכמה אשד לאומות העולם, אינה אלא חלק החיצוניות שלא נכלל בתורה:
Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzatto (d. 1746), Adir BaMarom
However, the truth is that even though the spheres [earth, moon, sun and planets] and the stars are physical objects, clothed within them is an inner spiritual significance from their root. … And when we find our sages speaking about the sun and other stars, that they are not fixed according to what we see [seemingly contradicts the physical world], the sages are speaking about the inner spiritual essence of the spheres. … And the wisdom of the nations [science], is only a part of the external [physical existence] that is not included in the Torah.
Where does Ramchal find this idea in the Gemoro itself?
The Gemoro talks about the mayanos (wellsprings) being heated. This implies a physical object does the heating.
An astronomical discussion would appear to be linked to the previous Gemoro which spent some time refuting Rava’s opinion about the thickness of the rekiah (firmament).
If chazal were having a discussion with gentile sages, why would they mention spiritual matters which are more suited to a Beis Hamedrash?
Perhaps the Ramchal is trying to say is that even though on a physical level the gentile sages seem to be correct but upon a higher inner spiritual level chazal are correct. In their discussion with gentile sages they only discussed the physical level.