1. I am having trouble defining “oleh al shulchan melachim” and “tzuras hapas” as it pertains to bishul and pas akum accordingly. I am also not finding any clear definitions in the poskim/teshuvos. Are there any mareh mikomos that you could help me out with?
2. When there is a heter to eat pas akum because it is more appealing, does that apply to price as well? is there a guideline for how much better/cheaper it must be to qualify? (sources)
3. Is there a chumra to not eat pas akum if you are in a place that is at least 4 milin away from any pas yisroel? Or is the heter there a heter completely? (sources)
- “Oleh al shulchan melachim” technically means that it is a food of dish that is prominent enough that it would be served on a kings table. The question is ow do we define this? The poskim ask a question, how could it be that the food has to be so prominent that only a king will eat it, the reason for the gezeira was so that the Jew will not eat together with gentile, get friendly, and eventually intermarry. If only such prominent food is prohibited, most regular people don’t have such food, so how is it preventing them from getting friendly and intermarrying? Therefore, numerous poskim say that it means food that would be served to you guest is included in this. Others say that it is the level of food that would be served at a smorgasbord, or wedding or in a restaurant. Others say that it doesn’t mean the king himself but ministers or other prominent people. Regarding tzuras hapas, I don’t understand what you are referring to.
- The Shulchan Aruch Y:D 112-5 says that if the bread of the gentile bakery is better or of a type that the Jewish bakery doesn’t make, that it is permitted to eat it. The difference has to be significant and not just a preference. If there is a difference in price it also has to be a significant difference. It should be noted that this heter is only for pas palter, bakery bread but not for pas akum. Additionally, any bread bought nowadays needs a hechsher, because there are a lot of ingredients going into bread.
- I am not aware of such a heter.
- Shevet Hakehosi 6-274(4), Minchas Osher (Devorim 5-8 D:H V’raisi, Shulchan Melachim pg. 302, Pischei Halacha pg. 170 question 18 in the name of Be’er Moshe, OU document a-94, Chida in Shiuri Bracha 113-2, Kaf Hachayim 113-2.
- Pischei Halacha 3-5 ftnt. 20, Noam Halacha 4-30 ftnt. 50-51. According to R’ Moshe (Mesores Moshe-1 Y:D 61) and R’ Eliyashiv (Bishul Yisroel pg. 17, Ashrei Ish Y:D 8-11) zt”l the regular difference between Jewish bread and Gentile bakery bread is not enough to be lenient, ( R’ S. Felder shlit”a however disagrees).
- See Darcei Teshuva 112-58.