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Meaningful shapes on Shabbat/ Yom Tov


B”H Thank you for your help. My questions are:
1. If a closed book has some dirt on the outside pages, and when separated for reading, the configuration of the stain gets separated, is it ok to open and read this book on Shabbat/ Yom Tov (the stains could be food/ drink from meals perhaps, and there is no number or letter that gets separated from the pages, just the smeared pages)
2. Would it be ok to sit on a velvet chair/sofa on Shabbat/ Yom Tov if there is a mark on the sofa after the person gets up..? Or there could be a hand mark on the fabric when they simply touch it, but it is not their intention to make a hand mark, it is just the result of touching the chair/ sitting on the chair. Is this permitted for Shabbat/ Yom Tov?
Thank you again, Shabbat Shalom and Chag samea!


  1. It is permitted as the dirt has no meaningful shape.
  2.  If it just leaves a mark, but it isn’t any specific shape, there is no issue with it.

Have a good yom tov

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