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KITNIYOS

Kitniyos is a general term which includes grains that grow in the proximity of chometz grains and select grains that can be cooked and baked in a fashion similar to chometz grains. Yet, no kitniyos are considered to be chometz. The term for the fermentation of barley, rye, oats, wheat, and spelt is “chimutz;” the term given for fermentation of kitniyos is “sirachon”.

Sepharadim use kitniyos on Pesach because the Beis Yosef permits it while Ashkenazic Jewry follow the Ramo and do not permit eating kitniyos on Pesach.

Many reasons have been offered for the custom to refrain from eating kitniyos. The two main reasons are:

  1. Due to a concern that chometz grains might get mixed among the kitniyos grains, creating an inadvertent, yet real chometz problem when the grains are cooked together and eaten. Many Sepharadim who eat kitniyos reduce this concern by checking the kitniyos grains three times to make sure no chometz grains are intermixed in the kitniyos and then permit kitniyos usage.
  2. Were kitniyos products permitted, people might confuse kitniyos flours and chometz flour. This might result in the usage on Pesach of flour of the five grains that can become chometz.

Kitniyos may not be eaten but one may benefit from kitniyos and it is not necessary to sell or destroy kitniyos before Pesach. For example, one may use kitniyos for pet food and keep soft drinks in the house stored in a cabinet. Many sodas have corn syrup in them and should not be used on Pesach but can remain in one’s storage area. (It is advisable to have it stored in a place where it won’t accidentally get used on Pesach.)

It is important to note that in case of medications, kitniyos restrictions are not applicable, and pills that have corn starch binders would be permissible for medicinal purposes.

Baby formulas often have kitniyos in them and you may feed infants kitniyos formula just as a sick person may eat kitniyos. In Eretz Yisroel, however, Materna baby formula has a kosher LePesach production and you should try using that before relying on a kitniyos product. Sometimes this is available abroad. If you are traveling, try to take the kosher LePesach formula along with you to your place of destination so that you don’t have a problem obtaining it there.

It is recommended that the following items should be considered kitniyos unless a family has a specific custom otherwise:

Anise, ascorbic acid, aspartame, beans (all types of beans e.g., kidney, lima, garbanzo), bean sprouts, BHA and BHT (in corn oil), black-eyed peas, buckwheat, calcium ascorbate, canola (rapeseed) oil, caraway, citric acid (sometimes chometz), chickpeas, coriander,[1] corn and corn oil, corn syrup, cumin, dextrose, emulsifiers, fennel, fenugreek, flavors (may also be chometz), flax seeds, glucose, green beans, guar gum, hydrolyzed vegetable oil, kasha, kimmel, lecithin (all commercially produced lecithin is made from soy), lentils, licorice, lucerne, lupine, maltodextrin (sometimes chometz), millet, MSG (can be from beets [kosher for Pesach], corn [kitniyos], or wheat [chometz]), mustard and mustard flour, NutraSweet, peanuts, peas, polysorbates (sometimes chometz), popcorn, poppy seeds, rice, saffron, sesame seeds, snow peas, sodium citrate, sodium erythorbate, sorbitan, sorbitol (could be chometz unless manufactured in the U.S.A), soybeans and soy oil, stabilizers, starch (possibly chometz), string beans, sunflower seeds, tofu, vitamin C (could be chometz), xanthan gum (may be chometz).

Quinoa is kitniyos and may not be eaten on Pesach, some follow a lenient opinion and consume quinoa on Pesach.[2]

Flax seeds and hemp seeds are technically not kitniyos.[3] However since they can be ground as flour, some opinions include them in the category of kitniyos.[4] On such matters, one should follow the custom of his/her family. In the absence of a clear custom, one may use such “kitniyos” (e.g., cottonseed oil).

חושאב”ס שנצרך לתבשיל קטניות, מותר לאכלן.[5] ונכון כשמבשלים אותם לחולה, להכניסם לקדירה כשהמים כבר רותחים.[6]

ואם בישל קטניות בכליו של פסח לצורך חולה (או לקטן הנצרך לכך או לספרדי), יכול לבשל באותם כלים לאחר מעל”ע לאלה שאינם אוכלים קטניות.[7]

ואם נתבשל אוכל בכלים שודאי יש בהם טעם קטניות ב”י, כגון שידוע שתוך מעל”ע בישל בהם קטניות, מ”מ לא נאסר התבשיל בדיעבד[8], דקטניות בפסח בטילים ברוב כמש”כ הרמ”א תנ”ג ס”א, ובודאי איכא רוב בתבשיל כנגד טעם הקטניות הנפלט מהקדירה לאוכל.[9]

אבל אסור לכתחילה לבשל בקדירה שיש בו טעם קטניות ב”י.[10]

ולכן נראה דאורח אשכנזי שמתארח אצל ספרדים, אע”פ דאסור לו לאכול מאכלי קטניות, מ”מ מותר לו לאכול מה שנתבשל בכלים ב”י של קטניות או ד”ח בכלים אב”י, דהרי בשלו בעיקר בשביל עצמם, ואע”פ שהוסיפו בשבילו מ”מ לא ערבו טעם הקטניות במזיד בשבילו. וטעם הקטניות נתבטל ברוב המאכל שאיננו קטניות.[11]

Pet Foods

Many pet foods contain chometz such as wheat (cracked, flour, germ, gluten, ground, grouts, middlings and starch), barley (cracked, flour), oats (flour, grouts, hulled), pasta, rye and brewer’s dried yeast.

Since Ashkenazic Jew may benefit from kitniyos on Pesach, beans, brewer’s rice, buckwheat, corn, millet, milo, peanuts, peas, rice, safflower, sesame, soybeans, soy flour and sunflower seeds for instance, do not pose a problem in pet foods.

Bird foods – Pure sunflower seeds or millet are fine. Most other products contain wheat or oats.

Cat food – Canned cat foods without wheat, grains, beef and milk products combination. The food bowl that is used during the year should be thoroughly cleaned before Pesach. Sometimes kitty litter is wheat based. Make sure to use a brand that is clay or wood-based.

Dog food – Same as cat food. You will need to check the item well and it may require a few phone calls to reach a distributor who can fax to you a letter attesting that a certain pet food is Kosher for Pesach.

Fish food (fresh water) – additive free freeze dried worms, krill (frozen, without additives).

Fish food (salt water) – frozen brine shrimp, Krill (frozen without additives), blood worms.

Hamsters, Guinea pigs, gerbils and rabbits – Alfalfa grass and sunflower seeds. It is best to feed pure alfalfa pellets. Make sure it is pure alfalfa since it is common to add grains. Dried alfalfa may also be given.

You can supplement with mixture of cut-up fruits and vegetables – carrots, broccoli, grapes, apples, melon, kale, parsley, oranges, celery, dry corn, sunflower seeds and cabbage. One can also give some matzoh. If your pet is not accustomed to these items, give them sparingly.

Guinea pigs, especially, will benefit from kale, parsley and oranges. Hamsters, especially, will benefit from apples. Guinea pigs need vitamin C added to diet.

Mixes sold in stores often contain chometz. It is advisable to mix regular and Pesach food together one to two weeks before Pesach before switching completely to Pesach food. The ratio of regular and Pesach food should be changed slowly to get the animal used to the new diet. Check with your veterinarian before changing your pet’s diet. The rav takes no responsibility for adverse reactions.

Zoo – If you go to the zoo, do not buy any food to feed the animals. It often contains chometz.

MEDICINE

Most prescriptions can be filled with kosher-for-Pesach medicine. Since some prescriptions are, unfortunately, not available with kosher certification, here are some guidelines for those who must take medicine on Pesach.

  1. Only chometz that is food is prohibited on Pesach. A bitter liquid, capsule or tablet is kosher for Pesach even if the ingredients contain chometz. These medications or vitamins are not edible; even animals would reject them as food. The fact that we humans will ingest them for medicinal purposes does not elevate them to the status of food.[12][13] The problem on Pesach generally arises with flavored medications. Tablets coated with a sweet flavor made of chometz or liquids with grain alcohol and a sweetener are problematic since the medication is now edible and considered food.
  2. A person who suffers from an illness that may become life-threatening may eat chometz on Pesach and may take any medication needed to avoid a life-threatening situation,[14] provided that:
    1. No kosher alternative with the same degree of efficacy is available;
    2. The illness requires immediate attention and the treatment cannot be postponed;
    3. The medication has been tested and is recognized as therapeutic (i.e., it is not experimental).[15]
  3. If one is aware of the medical condition before Pesach, one should speak to a rav as soon as possible. There are some ways of minimizing or even avoiding the concern of eating or benefiting from chometz. The reason for discussing this earlier rather than later is so that you can get the proper approval from your physician and pharmacist. The alternative preparations must be made before Pesach.
  4. If someone is ill but his life is not in danger, he may not eat chometz on Pesach. However, he may take chometz medicine under certain circumstances. For example, swallowing a pill without water is considered an abnormal way of eating, and it is permissible to do so as long as the person is indeed sick and needs it to recover.[16] There are also some ways to prepare medicines before Pesach to make them kosher for Pesach.
  5. Generally speaking, cough syrups and other liquid medicines may contain grain alcohol and may not be used on Pesach. When one must take medicine during Pesach, one’s doctor should be asked to prescribe either medicine without alcohol or capsules.

DISHWASHERS

Technically, dishwashers can be kashered if they have a stainless steel interior and there is no heating element inside the dishwasher that heats up the water. The dishwasher must be thoroughly cleaned. A dovor pogem (e.g., cleanser) should be used on every screw, crevice or area that cannot be totally cleaned, all rubber and plastic parts (e.g., pumps and hoses) should be replaced, and the racks should be replaced.

After waiting 24 hours from the last time chometz was used, run a complete cycle with soap. If the dishwasher heats up its own water, you have to make sure that the water in the kashering cycle reaches boiling; this is difficult to verify. Generally, it is impractical to kasher any dishwasher.[17]

MILK

Milk processed during Pesach requires special supervision. Due to the modern pasteurizing processes used in the milk industry, many nutrients are inadvertently removed. In some countries governmental regulations dictate that Vitamin D, and in some cases, Vitamin A be added to milk before its sale. Vitamin A and D are often derived from chometz or kitniyos, however, only a very small amount is added to the milk. Since mixtures of even small amounts of chometz on Pesach are not batel beshishim, we must be cautious concerning milk which contains these additives. This however, is not a concern when buying kosher milk for Pesach in Eretz Yisroel, since there are mashgichim at the major factories who supervise all aspects of the kashrus on the milk and its products. Only when traveling abroad for Pesach is it necessary to really be concerned about this issue. The entire concern can be avoided by buying all the milk you need before Pesach. By doing so, the vitamins in the milk are batel. (Bitul works when the mixture had taken place before Pesach).[18]

ITEMS that may be used WITHOUT a hechsher for Pesach

Air Freshener– any

Alcohol – any Isopropyl

Aluminum Foil – any

Aluminum Disposable Containers – any

Ammonia – any

Aspirin – any unflavored pill or capsule.

Baby Oil – any pure

Baby Ointment – any

Baby Powder – Johnson’s or any pure Talcum Powder

Baby Wipes – any

Baking Soda – (not baking powder) any pure bicarbonate

Band Aids – any

Bird Food – see above “Pet Food” section

Bleach – any

Blush (make up) – any

Charcoal Briquets – for a barbeque, any kind

Cleansers – any

Cocoa – any pure cocoa

Coffee – any ground and unflavored unless decaffeinated. (Decaffeinated and instant coffees need a hechsher for Pesach.)

Coffee Filter – any

Cold Medication – see medications

Contact Lens Fluid – any brand

Cups – any plastic or Styrofoam

Dates – ONLY whole dates; cut up dates could contain flour or dextrose

Dental Floss – any unflavored brand

Deodorant – any

Detergent (Clothes) – any

Diapers (Disposable) – any

Dish Detergent – any

Dishwasher Detergent – any

Dog Food – See “Pet Food” article (above)

Eye Shadow / Eye Liner – any brand

Fabric Softener – any

Face powder – any

Fresh Fruit and Vegetables—may be waxed with food grade wax that contains traces of kitniyos derivatives (soy protein) as a thickener. The amount of kitniyos is always less than half of the wax and is batel berov. See section about peeled fresh vegetables

Fruit (Frozen) – any without sugar or other additives

Furniture Polish – any

Garbage Bags – any plastic

Glass Cleaner – any

Hairspray – any

Household Cleanser – any

Hydrogen Peroxide – any

Ice (from plain, unflavored water) – any

Juice (frozen) – Abroad, any brand name frozen orange juice concentrate, which is unsweetened, and is not enriched. In Eretz Yisroel frozen juices require a hechsher for terumos and maasros.

Lactaid tablets (not drops)

Lactaid Milk – Must be purchased before Pesach (may contain small amount of actual chometz)

Lotion – any

Mascara – any

Meat – all raw meat (not coated, processed, etc.) of reliable year-round Hechsher are also kosher for Pesach. Cured meats need special Pesach hechsher due to preservatives and additives. They may contain a hydrolyzed protein from chometz or kitniyos.

Mineral Oil – any type

Nail Polish / Remover – any

Nuts – any raw almonds, walnuts (even if bleached). Nuts should not have BHA, BHT or other additives for Pesach. Pecans must have Kosher for Pesach certification.

Oven Cleaner – any

Paper Napkin –any

Paper Towel – any brand

Plastic Bag & Wrap, Plate, Cup, etc. – any brand

Quinoa [for those who are lenient] whole seeds should be bought before Pesach and checked for other grains. Quinoa flour should only be bought with a reliable hechsher for Pesach since it may have been ground on machines that process grains and not cleaned properly before grinding the quinoa.

Rice – for those Sepharadim who use rice on Pesach, it is acceptable only without additives (this includes vitamins) and should be checked for other grains. The added vitamins sometimes have chometz.

Rubber Gloves – any uncoated

Salt (Coarse – Kosher Salt) – any

Sandwich Bag – any paper or plastic

Scouring Pad – any

Shampoo – any

Shelf Paper – any uncoated

Shoe Polish – any

Silver Polish – any

Soap (Hand) – any

Sponge – any

Straws – any plastic

Styrofoam Products – any

Suntan Lotion any

Tissue (Bathroom & Facial) – any

Toothbrush – any

Vegetable (Fresh) – alfalfa sprouts in the U.S.A. (sprouts in Israel often contain seeds of kitniyos and grains of safek chometz and should be avoided), artichoke, asparagus, avocado, beets, bell pepper, broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage (red or green), carrot, cauliflower, celeriac (celery root), celery, chicory, chives, collard, cucumber, dandelion greens, dill, eggplant, endive, escarole, garlic[19], green onion, horseradish (raw), kohlrabi, leek, lettuce (all types), mint leaves, mushroom, okra, onion, potato, parsley, parsley root, pumpkin, radishes (all types), rhubarb, rutabaga, scallions, spinach, tomatillo, tomatoes, turnip, watercress, whole pepper, yams, and zucchini.

Water (Unflavored) – any

Water Filters – any

Items that require a Pesach hechsher before consuming

Airline Meals – Airlines often mistakenly serve meals on Pesach which are not kosher for Pesach. Always be careful to check your meal before accepting it. It must say Kosher for Pesach.

Baby Food – check for Pesach hechsher

Baby Formula – Check for one with a hechsher for Pesach. It is permissible to use one with kitniyos (e.g., Similac®) if necessary. Some of these products are imported to Eretz Yisroel. Materna, which is easily available in Eretz Yisroel, now has a product which is kosher for Ashkenazim on Pesach (without kitniyos). Not all babies take to this well. If you experimented before Pesach and found that your infant does not eat well with the non-kitniyos product, you can use the Materna for Pesach that has kitniyos.

Bakery Goods – check for Pesach hechsher

Baking Powder – check for Pesach hechsher

Borscht – check for Pesach hechsher

Cake Mix – check for Pesach hechsher

Candy – check for Pesach hechsher

Canned vegetables with or without syrup—may be iodized with flour, dextrose (dietetic may contain grape juice) or contain corn syrup. Frozen vegetables are often produced on the same equipment as pasta. Therefore all canned vegetables need a kosher lepesach hechsher.

Cereal

Cheese

Chocolate Chips

Cocoa

Coffee – requires hechsher unless ground and unflavored

Cold Cuts – Cured meats need special Pesach hechsher due to preservatives and additives. They may contain a hydrolyzed protein from chometz or kitniyos.

Confectioner’s sugar – (also known as powdered sugar) needs a reliable hechsher for Pesach. Confectioner’s sugar is granulated sugar which has been ground to a smooth powder. A free-flow agent is added to ensure that the sugar does not clump (the added agent is usually around 3% of the sugar). Most often this agent is cornstarch, which is kitniyos. Since the minhag of Ashkenazim is to refrain from eating kitniyos on Pesach, confectioner’s sugar should have a hechsher.[20] Sometimes, the free-flow agent used is wheat starch which obviously cannot be used or  even owned on Pesach. Kosher for Pesach confectioner’s sugar is made without kitniyos or chometz. Whenever an exceptional circumstance arises with regard to powdered sugar, a competent rav should be consulted.

Technically, pure sugar should always be kosher for Pesach. While no ingredients in standard, granulated sugar are chometz, a problem could arise in a company that uses wheat starch in its confectioner’s sugar, as noted above. The company might then reintroduce the confectioner’s sugar into the regular sugar. Sometimes a product does not meet a company’s standards, and is reintroduced back into the production line to be reprocessed. Should this happen, wheat starch could then find its way back into the regular sugar. Although the amount of wheat starch in the sugar may seem insignificant, one should not use such sugar on Pesach. In areas in which the sugar may come from a factory that resorts to such a practice, a hechsher on sugar is recommended.

Cookies

Cooking Spray

Cough Syrup –

Cumin – when imported from Far East may have traces of wheat and oats.

Fish (Prepared)

Fish (Lox)

Fish (Smoked)

Food Coloring

Frozen Vegetables—require reliable Kosher for Passover certification since pasta blends are produced on the same equipment.

Fruits and Vegetables (Canned or Packaged)

Fruits (Dried)

Fruits (Frozen)

Grape Juice

Gum

Honey – Honey can be adulterated with corn syrup which is considered kitniyos. Some honey producers mix the inexpensive corn syrup into honey and illegally label and sell it as pure honey with no mention of this almost undetectable filler. Although this unscrupulous practice is rare, nevertheless, it is recommended to purchase pure honey for Pesach with a reliable Pesachdik hechsher.[21]

Horseradish

Hot Chocolate Mix

Ice Cream

Ices

Jams & Jellies

Jels (Dessert)

Juices (Fresh)

Ketchup

Lactaid drops (not tablets) – needs a hechsher for Pesach. Otherwise, you can add the drops to the milk or food before Pesach and make certain that there is 60 times the volume of milk to the volume of the drops.

Lemon Juice

Lip Stick – one does not need to have a hechsher on the lipstick but one should get a new lipstick in case a crumb is on the old one and it might be ingested. It is possible to cut off the top of the lipstick to make sure that there are no crumbs on the lipstick.

Liquor

Macaroons

Margarine

Marshmallows

Matzoh – There are chometzdik matzos! Also sefaradim have different standards for matzos than Ashkenazim. An Ashkenazi should only use matzos manufactured by reliable Ashkenazi hechsherim.

Mayonnaise

Meat Deli

Non Dairy Creamer

Noodles

Nuts

Oil

Oil Sprays –

Olives

Olive Oil

Paprika – hechsher for Pesach necessary. In order to maintain color consistency in paprika, companies will blend oil into the paprika and still call it pure.

Pickles

Potato Chips

Potato Starch

Preserves

Puddings

Salad Dressing

Salsa

Salt (Table) a hechsher for Pesach is necessary. Always check to make sure that there is no dextrose, iodine or polysorbate listed in the ingredients. Today most table salt contains iodine in the form of potassium iodide. Potassium iodide, however, tends to degrade in the presence of moisture; in order to protect the iodine, a small amount of dextrose is often added to the salt to prevent oxidation. While not generally a kashrus concern, dextrose is derived from corn (and sometimes, wheat) starch, and therefore one should only use salt that has a reliable hechsher for Pesach.

Sauce

Soda [22]

Soups & Soup Mixes

Soup Nuts

Spices – see section of items to be cautious about.

Spreads

Sugar (Brown) – needs hechsher (without hechsher for Pesach may contains culture, yeast, corn starch, may contain wheat starch)

Sugar (White) – needs hechsher unless manufactured in the US of America, since the companies there do not reintroduce confectioner’s sugar into the regular granulated cane sugar. See confectioner’s sugar.

Sugar Substitutes – may contain chometz. (NutraSweet). I have checked with Splenda Company and they have confirmed that the maltodextrin and dextrose they use in some of their products are corn derivatives. Splenda® has no grain derivatives in their products. Although Ashkenazim should not use Splenda® on Pesach, they may keep it in their pantries. Sepharadim who consume kitniyot may use Splenda®.

Syrup

Tea (Instant) – needs hechsher

Toothpaste –often contains sorbitol and other ingredients that are derived from chometz. Toothpaste is considered by some poskim as inedible and thus does not require a hechsher. In my opinion, some children relish toothpaste and purposefully swallow it. Children are people to and one should be careful to get toothpaste with a hechsher as its chometz content may pose a problem of tasting and ingesting chometz on Pesach.

Vegetables (Canned)

Vegetables (Frozen)

Vinegar

Walnut Oil

Wines & Liquors

Wine (Vinegar)

Yogurt

ITEMS TO BE CAUTIOUS ABOUT

Alfalfa Sprouts—the ones available in Israel often contain kitniyos seeds and grains that are safek chometz. One should not possess them on Pesach.

Airline meals—Chometz meals are sometimes served by mistake.

Apple juice—nutrients (sometimes processed on equipment that has vinegar on it), enzymes, clarifying agents

Applesauce—corn syrup, sugar, dextrose, flavoring

Aveeno® Skin Relief Bath treatment—contains colloidal oatmeal, which means finely ground oatmeal ready for mixture in bath water. The oatmeal is edible and forbidden to eat for breakfast on Pesach or to use in a bath during Pesach. It must be sold or disposed of before Pesach

Baby cereals and other baby food—can contain wheat or sugar, and may be made on chometz equipment

Bird food—many contain grain

Brown sugar—culture, yeast, corn starch, may contain wheat starch

Butter—salt, coloring, preservatives, nutrients, culture, lactic acid from corn

Candied fruit—dextrose, may contain powdered sugar or flour

Cat food—wheat, cheese or whey with meat, oats and barley

Cheese and cottage cheese—stabilizers, corn sugar, coagulating agent (microbial rennet from real chometz), dextrose, cultures

Chewing gum—corn syrup, flavoring

Cigars (flavored)—chometz alcohol

Chocolate and chocolate milk—malt (real chometz), glucose

Chocolate spread—may contain kitniyos. Note: even though some chocolate spreads with kitniyos may say “kosher for Pesach” on the label, they are acceptable only for Sephardim who eat kitniyos.

Cider vinegar—may contain yeast that is real chometz

Citric acid—often derived from glucose

Coffee—some coffees are processed on chometz machinery and some (such as Postum®) contain grain.

Coffee (decaffeinated)—may have been processed with ethyl acetate (derived from grain alcohol). Coffee flavoring may contain chometz alcohol, as well as non-kosher flavoring.

Condensed milk—sugar, preservatives and oil to reconstitute

Confectioner’s (icing) sugar—corn starch, may contain wheat starch

Corn oil, corn syrup—kitniyos

Creamer (non-dairy)—whey, emulsifiers that are dairy or kitniyos, some contain corn syrup

Cumin—cumin with a certification “kosher for Pesach” that was imported from the Far East has been found to have traces of wheat and oats. Be particularly careful to purchase ground cumin from a very reliable hechsher.

Dextrose—corn derivative

Dog food—barley, oats, wheat, cheese or whey and meat

Dried fruits and raisins—dried in chometz ovens, may contain kitniyos oil, flour

Emulsifiers—can contain glucose

Fish food—wheat

Flour—has been bleached and washed, therefore chometz

Frozen fruit— Plain, frozen, unsweetened fruit pieces are acceptable without kosher for Pesach supervision. However, sometimes the fruit is sweetened. Sweetened frozen fruit pieces may have corn syrup, thus if it is sweetened it needs a hechsher.

Frozen fruit drink—usually contains corn syrup, flavoring

Glucose—corn or wheat derivative

Honey—corn syrup, coloring (possible even if not listed)

Horseradish—vinegar, sweeteners, hydrolyzed vegetable protein, wheat gluten

Hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP)—may be chometz. The protein is broken down into its amino acids and is used to enhance flavor. It can be made from soy, corn or wheat.

Ice cream—sugar, flavorings, stabilizers

Ketchup—stabilizers, oil, dextrose, vinegar (real chometz), flavorings

Lecithin—kitniyos

Liquor—may have a grain alcohol base, wine

MSG—may be from wheat

Margarine—emulsifiers, artificial flavor, salt, sugar, oil

Maraschino cherries—glucose, dextrose (cut cherries are usually colored red with carmine, an insect derivative)

Mayonnaise—MSG from hydrolyzed protein, oil, flavorings, sweeteners, vinegar

Mustard—kitniyos (not to be confused with kosher-for-Pesach imitation mustard)

Nuts—BHA, BHT, sprayed with kitniyos (corn oil)

Oil—kitniyos

Pecans—chometz processing

Peeled vegetables—i.e., carrots, potatoes (may be washed and preserved with citric acid or dextrose anti-oxidant)

Pet food—wheat, milk, cheese or whey mixed with meat (unacceptable year-round). See section above regarding pet food.

Pickles—vinegar (chometz), flavorings

Play Dough—edible flour (must be discarded before Pesach). (Some companies add lot of salt to keep kids from eating it and it is very salty. However, it is still edible if mixed with plain dough and the salt is diluted.)

Powdered cocoa (sweetened)—powdered milk, corn sweetener

Rice—Ashkenazim do not use rice on Pesach because it is considered kitniyos. Sepharadim (who eat rice on Pesach) must use additive-free rice.

Rubber gloves (powdered)—chometz powder

Salt—Table salt often contains dextrose and polysorbate, especially when iodized.

Soda—flavorings, dextrose, corn sugar

Soy oil, soy lecithin—kitniyos

Spices (processed or flavored)—dextrose, flavoring or oils. Even spices that declare that they contain only spice need a hechsher since they may have been prepared on equipment that had already been used for other spice blends that are not kosher. Minimal cleaning in between the two processes may have been done and sometimes a proper kashering is necessary between processes. Furthermore, anti-caking ingredients may have been added that are not listed. These pose a chometz risk. Thus spices require a kosher lepesach hechsher. See Cumin.

Splenda®—contains kitniyos

Sugar—many sugars are produced from corn and are kitniyos. See confectioner’s sugar.

Sunflower seeds—kitniyos

Tea (instant)—may contain kitniyos sweetener

Tea (herbal)—chometz or non-kosher flavoring

Tofu—made from soybeans (kitniyos)

Tomato products—vinegar (chometz), nutrients, salt, sugar, chometz machinery

Tonic water—corn syrup

Tuna—hydrolyzed protein, oil

Vegetables (frozen)—may have been processed on chometz machinery

Vanilla extract—corn syrup, alcohol

Wine—corn sugar, chometz alcohol

Yogurt—milk powder, enzymes, flavoring, sugar

Kitchen Items That should not Be Kashered for Pesach

Corelle, Arcolac, Collander (plastic), Crockpot, China, Corning Ware, Knives with Plastic Handles, Melmac, Mixer, Pasta Maker, Plastic, Porcelain, Porcelain Enameled Pots, Pyrex, Sandwich Maker, Silverstone, Stoneware (man-made stone and a type of ceramic), Synthetic Rubber, Teflon, Toaster/Toaster Oven, Waffle Iron. These items should be washed thoroughly and be put away in a completely sealed off area until after Pesach.


[1] יתכן שהוא אליינדר המוזכר ברמ”א סימן תנ”ג ס”א. הרמ”א כתב דאינו קטניות אבל המ”ב כתב דטוב להחמיר כיון דמעורב בו חמץ, ויש להקל ביו”ט אחרון של פסח.

[2] Whole seeds should be bought before Pesach and checked for other grains. Quinoa flour should only be bought with a reliable hechsher for Pesach since it may have been ground on machines that process grains and not cleaned properly before grinding the quinoa.

[3] עיין רמב”ם ספ”א מכלאים דפשתן אינו בכלל קטניות.

[4] עיין נדרים נה. לענין הנודר מן הדגן שכל זרעים בכלל, וכיון דבכלל גזירת קטנית י”ל דנכלל כל מיני דמידגן ה”ה דפשתן בכלל הגזירה.וכ”כ בשו”ת מהרי”ל סימן כ”ה טעם לאסור זרע קנבוס דלפי הסמ”ק יש לאסור כל דמידגן כמו חרדל ור”ל אף שאינו בכלל קטניות, וכ”כ בבית שלמה יו”ד סימן קע”ז דאף דפשתן אינו בכלל קטניות כיון דקי”ל כסמ”ק דכל מיני דמידגן אסור ה”ה פשתן, וכ”ה בתה”ד סימן קי”ג.

ובא המרחשת סימן ב’ ואסר שמן הבא מזרעונין הללו שאסורים משום שהם מיני דמידגן אף שאינם ממש קטניות. וע”ע במנח”י ח”ג סימן קל”ח ובח”ד סימן קי”ד:ג, דקודם אסר שמן כותנה ואח”כ הביא מהרש”ם (ח”א קפ”ג), ט”ז ומנחת פתים דשרי ולא הוי בכלל קטניות, ונשאר בצ”ע להלכה. ולכן נראה דיש להקל במנהג זו וע”ע באג”מ ח”ג או”ח סימן ס”ג בכללים של מנהג קטניות. ובאמת בצעירותי בארה”ב נהגו העולם להשתמש בשמן כותנה (cottonseed oil), ובא”י הרבה אין משתמשים. אמנם קשה לומר דהקובע דירתו בא”י צריך לנהוג במנהג המקום ולאסור שמן כותנה כיון דאיכא הרבה קהילות בא”י וכ”א נוהג כפי מנהגו, ועוד שגם בא”י איכא רבנים גדולים שהתירו והקילו בזה. הרב צבי פסח פראנק והרב חיים סאלאוויציק התירו שמן כותנה, ובודאי היו בעבר, וכן היום עדיין נוהגים היתר בזה בא”י.

אמנם אפשר דעצה טובה הוא להקפיד בזה אם רוצה להזמין אורחים שמקפידים בזה לסעודות יו”ט, ועוד במעש”ר נראה דהקפיד בזה.

Cottonseed oil falls in the category (of flax seeds) as the cotton itself is not edible and there is no concern of chometz grains getting mixed into the oil and there is no concern of people permitting ground wheat flour (see below). Nevertheless, since the cotton can be ground as one grinds other grains there are those that refrain from using cottonseed oil on Pesach.

This is important to be aware of, although one may use cottonseed oil on Pesach, such conduct might limit your guest list. Certain guests might avoid eating such oils and refuse your hospitality. However, should the oil be in a dish and unrecognizable as oil, the dish would be permitted to all provided there is a majority of other ingredients in the dish.

עיין רמ”א ר”ס תנ”ג משמע שאם יש רוב היתר שרי, וכ”כ בפר”ח שם. ובחק יעקב כתב דכן עיקר כיון שבלא”ה היא חומרא והרחקה בעלמא, ובא”ר ג”כ כתב דצריך רוב היתר וכ”כ החיי”א והגר”ז ובמ”ב סק”ט. אולם בח”א הוסיף דאם ניכר הקטניות יטול גרעיני הקטניות ויזרוק ויאכל שאר המאכל.

[5] מ”ב תנ”ג סק”ז.

[6] מ”ב שם בשם הח”ס בתשובה סימן קכ”ב דאפילו במקום שיש להתיר מ”מ יחלטנו לכתחילה ברותחין דכל מה דאפשר לתקן מתקנינן וכ”כ בח”א עכ”ל.

[7] כ”כ בכה”ח סימן תנ”ג ס”ק כ”ז בשם אחרונים וביניהם הפר”ח תצ”ו ס”ק כ”ד.

[8] כלומר לאחר שכבר נתבשל מותר לכתחילה לאוכלו.

[9] ובמ”ב תנ”ג סק”ח כתב דאם ניכר ורואין גרגרין של קטניות צריך לזורקן. אבל בנד”ד דמיירי לענין טעמא בלבד, בטל ברוב, כמש”כ במ”ב שם סק”ט. וע”ע בבאר יצחק סי”א דא”צ אלא משהו בהיתר יותר מהקטניות. וגם הח”י ס”ל דסגי ברוב והוסיף טעם דבלא”ה היא חומרא והרחקה בעלמא, וכ”ד החי”א והגר”ז. אולם בפמ”ג א”א תס”ד סק”א מדייק מלשון התה”ד סימן קי”ג דקטניות אוסרים בששים, ונ”ל דלא קי”ל הכי.

[10] עמ”ב תס”ד סק”ו דמיקל אם נפל חרדל לתבשיל אינו אוסר אבל משמע דאסור לבטלו בידים. וכ”כ בחק יעקב ס”ס תס”ד. ובגר”ז שם כתב דאם בישל בקדירה ב”י של קטניות במזיד התבשיל אסור באכילה. וע”ע באבנ”ז סימן שע”ג.

[11] וכ”נ ממש”כ הכה”ח סימן תנ”ג ס”ק כ”ז בשם הזרע אמת ע”ש.

[12]

[13] חזו”א סימן קט”ז סק”ח דאם מעורב בדבר שאינו ראוי לאכילת אדם אין בהם משום חמץ כיון דא”א להפריד הקמח וגם אינו ראוי לחמע בו, ומותר לבולען לרפואה, ואף למאי דמשמע מאחרונים ז”ל דלכתחילה אסור לאכול אף חמץ שנפסל מאכילת כלב, מ”מ ע”י תערובת שאר דברים מותר, דלא שייך כאן אחשביה דדעתו על הסמים עכ”ד. וכ”כ באג”מ או”ח ח”ב סימן צ”ב דמתיר לקחת תרופות של חמץ כשנבטל משם אוכל קודם הפסח, ואחשביה לא שייך בדבר שלוקח לרפואה דאף דברים מרים ומאוסים נוטלים לרפואה עכ”ד.

[14] אג”מ או”ח ח”ב סימן צ”ב.

[15] עיין שע”ת ריש סימן תס”ו בשם תשובת הב”ח החדשות סימן ו’.

[16] איסורי הנאה מותרים שלא כדרך הנאתן לצורך רפואה שאין בו סכנה (ש”ך יו”ד סימן קנ”ה ס”ק י”ג). בליעת כדורים בלי מים נחשב שלא כדרך אכילה (אג”מ או”ח ח”ג סימן צ”א). ולכן חמץ בפסח שהוא איסור הנאה שרי לחולה שאין בו סכנה כשאוכלו שלא כדרכו. וע”ש בש”ך דבאיסור אכילה שרי שלא כדרכו אף שלא לצורך רפואה. וא”כ אף אי נימא דדזשעלאטין הוא איסור אכילה (מו”ר הרב שלמה פישר שליט”א מיקל בדזשעלאטין מדינא), מ”מ אם בולעו בלי מים שרי אף שלא לצורך רפואה.

[17] עיין אג”מ או”ח ח”ג סימן נ”ח, ויו”ד ח”ב סימן כ”ח וכ”ט. או”ח ח”א ס”ס ק”ד. ועיין עוד במ”ב תנ”ב סק”ז וסק”ח לענין אי מהני הגעלה בלי רותחין.

ולענין הגעלת מדיח כלים מטרף עיין אג”מ יו”ד ח”א סימן מ”ג ח”ב סימן מ”ו וח”ג סימן כ”ח דאפשר להגעיל אחר יב”ח בהפסד גדול ואפילו תוך יב”ח בשעת צורך גדול אם מגעיל ג”פ.

[18] אלא דיש לעיין בזה ממש”כ המ”ב סימן תמ”ז ס”ק י”ד וכ”כ הגר”ז סימן תמ”ב סק”ו דאם ערבו במזיד אע”פ שיש ששים כנגדו, לא בטל כיון שדרך תיקון המאכל ע”י חמץ הרי הוא חשוב ואינו בטל בששים. והוסיף עוד דאם לא ביערו ועבר עליו הפסח אסור בהנאה. והעיר בשער הציון סימן תמ”ז ס”ק י”א דזה חידוש גדול כיון דלא קעבר בב”י מה”ת ומ”מ נאסר בהנאה והוא יוצא מהכלל שכתב המ”ב בריש סימן תמ”ב. וא”כ אולי נימא דכיון דמערבים הוויטאמינים במזיד ע”פ חוקי המדינה הוי כדרכו בכך ולא יתבטל בששים. אמנם נראה דכוונת המ”ב וגר”ז דדוקא בדבר שצריך החמץ כדי לעשותו ובלי החמץ לא יוכל לעשות המאכל שרוצים לעשות כגון מוּרְיָס (שומן דגים) שמשימין בו לחם קלוי. ואם אין שָׂמִים בו לחם אין זה מוריס. משא”כ בנד”ד דרק משימין הוויטאמינים ע”פ חקי הממשלה או לצורך שיווק אבל גם אילו לא ישימו הוויטאמינים עדיין יהיה חלב, וע”כ נראה דאם נתערב החמץ קודם פסח בששים של חלב בטל, ולכן סתמתי למעלה דאפשר לקנות החלב לפני פסח ואז יהיה מותר לשתותו בפסח.

[19] עיין חיי אדם כלל קכ”ז ס”ז וז”ל ולפ”ז נ”ל פשוט דמה שיש נוהגים שלא לאכול צנון ושומים שאין לזה שום טעם וריח עכ”ל.

[20] ואע”ג דקטניות בטלים ברוב כמש”כ המ”ב סימן תנ”ג סק”ט וש”א (עיין תה”ד סימן קי”ג, וכ”ה משמעות הרמ”א תנ”ג ס”א, וכ”כ החק יעקב, א”ר, חיי אדם, גר”ז ובאר יצחק סימן י”א). אמנם אי”ז אלא כשנפל בדיעבד אבל אם עירב במזיד המנהג הוא שלא לאוכלו, כדמשמע מהרמ”א סימן תס”ד ומהמ”ב שם סק”ו. וכ”כ בח”י וגר”ז להדיא שם וע”ע באבנ”ז או”ח סימן שע”ג. וא”כ פשוט דאסור לערב לכתחילה קטניות בתבשיל על סמך ביטול ברוב.

וא”כ הכא, הא מערבים הקטניות במזיד ולא דמי לנפל, וראוי להחמיר שלא לאכול התערובת. וע”ע לעיל ציון 10. ונראה מה”ט א”א לסמוך להקל לאכול מאכלים המיוצרים עבור ספרדים שיש בהם מיעוט קטניות. דאע”פ דלא חשיב במבטל איסור לכתחילה כיון שעיקר התערובת נעשה עבור ספרדים, ואי”ז כמבטל איסור בידים, מ”מ כיון דמערבו במזיד המנהג להחמיר ולאוסרו.

[21] ואע”פ שקטניות בטל ברוב כמש”כ לעיל בציון 8 מ”מ גם כתבנו שם דכל שמערבו במזיד המנהג לאוסרו.

[22] There is a concern of kitniyos (e.g., corn syrup) in the sweetener.

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