I am a non-jew (and have no religious affiliation whatsoever) who is curious about Judaism and it’s beliefs, and I would like to ask questions about Judaism that include the topics of prayer and salvation. Using the same words Judaism uses for concepts, ideas, etc helps me be “on the same page” with jews when having a conversation, so I would like to ask about certain terms or names for things.
The following consists of my questions:
1. What is prayer called in Judaism?
2. What is it called when more than one Jew prays together? I’ve heard heard the terms pray rallies, prayer summits, prayer meetings, etc used to describe gatherings of non-jewish religious groups , but I’m not sure what you call it when jews pray together, like in very large gatherings.
3. Are non-jews allowed to pray together with jews, and do jews offer prayer, or are commanded to pray for non-jews (like for their guidance, well-being, salvation, etc)? If a person of a different faith asks a jew to pray for or with him/her for the person of a different faith circumstances (finances, health, marriage, etc), that the Creator’s will would be done in that situation for that non-jews life, are Jews permitted to pray with that non-jew? Like a non-jew asks if a jew would pray for him/her to be healed from a sickness.
4. Who do Jews count as their enemies in this world and who do they count as their friends?
5. What about Jews praying against those who trespass against Jews (unjustly persecute, harm, attack, wage war on them, etc), even going as far as calling out for their ultimate destruction?
6. Do Jews believe in curses, and that people can call down curses upon others such as their enemies?
7. What is salvation called (i.e. reward/blessing or whatever one is supposed to receive in the next life) in Judaism.
8. What is salvation to Jews, and what does it mean to them?
What is the place Jews go in the next life called where their will receive their salvation?
9. How is salvation received according to Judaism? Is it based on faith, good deeds, or other?
10. What about different levels or degrees of salvation? Do all Jews receive an equal reward, or do some receive a greater reward than others, and if the latter, what is it based on or what determines that?
I would like to apologize for not answering sooner. I suggest you contact the Chabad Center in your vicinity and I am sure that they will be able to help you.