is anything ever considered ‘extra’ to the meal and thus would require a bracha even after hamotzi?
(ex. desserts, fruits, liquor, etc.)
Yes: Things that are not considered an integral part of the meal, such as dessert and fruit, are not considered part of the meal, and a separate berachah must be made on them. A separate berachah is likewise made on wine, and the same applies for liquors.
For cakes and pastries that are served for desert, some authorities rule that a separate berachah is not made, depending on the type of cake and pastry.